Blessings can be translated to many things, and in the English language it is usually a loaded word that has connotations to the Abrahamic religion of Christianity ("God bless you"). In Buddhism, I think that Blessing translates more to "good wishes", "fortunate" or "virtue".
I don't think there is such thing as a prayer or blessing in Buddhism that would be directly related to the Christian notion of blessing to gain "God's favor and protection."
However, in Buddhism there is chanting, which can generate wholesome states of mind, there is also taking refuge in the triple gem (the Buddha, Dhamma, and Sangha), and there is the teachings of sila, samadhi and panna (morality, concentration and wisdom). All of these can be considered "blessings" in themselves because they promote wholesome states of mind, and can contribute to the path of liberation, or freedom from suffering.
Virtue is gained from trying to maintain morality such as the 5 precepts, and practicing generosity, or giving. These are in themselves blessings as well because they promote the welfare of ourselves and others
Positive feelings, although impermanent and not to be clinged to, could be considered a byproduct of wholesome mental states, which are produced when the mind is free from greed, hatred, and delusion, and can also be considered a blessing in itself. This is usually achieved through insight meditation / as one is practicing mindfulness, or temporarily through concentration meditation such as loving-kindness / metta practice.